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?й??Ļ????ڴ??????????۵????򣬷?չ??“?Ļ??????”?ڼ????ͻ???????????ݳ????˼?????̵ĵ?Ӱ??ͷ??ũѧԺ?????Ͽ?ʱ????“??β?͵Ĺ???”?????ֹ??⽫?????Ϳ?ѧ?Ƶ??????Ա㳰Ц?????????????䲻?ܶ࣬????δ??????
 
?ִ?һЩֺ???????ض??Լ??????Ŀ?ѧ????ָ?ֻ??ŵ??ˣ??ڱ????????????ĸ??ڼ????“??β?͹???”?־?ľ????ҡ???ʱ??Ц???ƵĽ???ò????Ƥ?ľ????ң?ӳ???˷??ǵ??Ļ???ʵ??֤??????ʷ??Ц???ǵ??¾????????θ????˶????ǽ??ڡ?
 
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1923?꣬William Wheeler????س??Ŵ?ѧΪ????ѧ?????????һ???????????ġ????????޵?“?װ???С֫ѿ”?????????ѧ??ֲ??ѧ??Jeffrey??1925?껹?????Ϲ?Ӭ?о???????????֪????????ʷ?????????????ǵ??жϺ????ۡ?
 
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??Ӭ????????ΪDrosophila??ԭ??“??¶”??????????ʿ???ʱ???ͱ????ء???ȡ?ķ??㣬???㽶??ƻ?????ڴ????Ͼ????ռ???1910?꣬?????Ŵ?ѧ??Thomas H.Morgan?Թ?Ӭ??Ϊ?о????߷??????ģ??Ӷ??춨?˹?Ӭ?İ???Ի͡?
 
1933??ŵ???????䷢??Morgan????Ϊ????ѧ????1910??1915??䣬ͨ????Ӭ?о????ƺͷḻ?˻????Ⱦɫ??ѧ˵??
 
1947??ŵ???????䷢??Morgan??ѧ??Hermann Joseph Muller????Ϊ????1927??ͨ????Ӭ??????X?߿????յ??Ŵ?ͻ?䣬?Ӷ?ȷ???Ŵ?ͻ??????????????
 
1995??ŵ???????䷢??Morganѧ??Sturtevant??ѧ??Ed Lewis???¹???Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard?Լ???????Eric Wieschaus????Ϊ???????ù?Ӭ?о?????????Nüsslein-Volhard??Wieschaus?Ĺ?????????ȫ?????о???Ӭ?ĵڶ??θ߳???
 
2011???ŵ???????䷢???ڷ?????????Jules Hoffman?????ù?Ӭ?о????????ߡ???ʱ?Ѿ??ǵڶ??ι?Ӭ?о??߳???β?ˣ??ܶ?????Ϊ??Ӭ?о???Ҫ??ʱ?ˡ?
 
??Jules Hoffman??ͬ??ȴ???ֹ?Ӭ?ֿ?ϸ????Ⱦ????Ҫ????Toll????ǰ??Nüsslein-Volhard??????ʵ???ҵ??о?????Toll????ĵ????ʼ?????ص??ź?ת??ͨ·?????Ӭ????????γɡ???Hoffman?Ƚ?һ?????ִ??ź?ת??ͨ·??Toll???忪ʼ???????븹?????γɣ?Ҳ???뿹??Ⱦ??
 
??Ȼ????Щ?о?????һ????????Ӭ?о???ȫ???????и?Ϊ???ʵģ????????ӵķ??ӻ??????????Կ?ѧ??Ϊ?ѹʵļ???????ѧԺSeymour Benzer??Rockefeller??ѧ??Michael Young??Brandeis??ѧ??Jeffrey Hall??Michael Rosbash?????ǵĹ?????ʾ?˲????????ӵĻ??????Joseph Takahashi???ַ???С???????ӵķ??ӣ??Ӷ?֤????Ӭ?????м?Ϊ???ƵĻ?????
 
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?ܶ??????Ȼ???ӹ?Ӭ?о??????磬???????Ĵ??ƻ?????˹ҽѧ?о?????HHMI??????????ؽ??½??о????ţ?Janelia farm????????ҪĿ?????о??񾭻?·???ִ????񣬶???????????Ŀǰ?????൱??????????Թ?Ӭ????ϵͳΪ????????ŵ???????????ܶ???ߵ?Rockefeller??ѧ????????Ƹ9???µĽ?ְ????3?????о???Ӭ?ġ?
 
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˹̹????ѧ??David Hogness??????70??????ҹ?????¡??Ӭ????ķ?????1982?꣬Rubin??Allan Spradling????Pת???ӽ鵼?Ĺ?Ӭת???򷽷????Դ??????˶????????
 
1987????ʿ??O’Kane??Gehring??????Ӭ????ǿ?????壻1988????????Lynn Cooley??Spradling??Pת???ӽ??в??????Ŵ?ͻ?䣻?¹???Tautz??Pfeifle??1989?귢???÷?ͬλ?ط???????ԭλ?ӽ????Ĺ??˻??????ļ?⣻1999??˹̹????ѧ??????Ⱥ?????????????ؽ???MARCM?????????Է???????ϸ????????????ı?????
 
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